Tracking

A generic GNSS signal defined by its complex baseband equivalent, , the digital signal at the input of a Tracking block can be written as:

where is the signal amplitude, is a filtered version of , is a time-varying code delay, is a time-varying Doppler shift, is a time-varying carrier phase shift, is a term modeling random noise and is the sampling period.

The role of a Tracking block is to follow the evolution of the signal synchronization parameters: code phase , Doppler shift and carrier phase .

According to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach1, obtaining the optimum estimators implies the maximization of the correlation of the incoming signal with its matched filter. The ML estimates of and can be obtained by maximizing the function

where

with being the number of samples in an integration period, and is a locally generated reference.

This is usually achieved with closed-loop structures designed to minimize the difference between the code phase, carrier phase and frequency of the incoming signal with respect to the locally-generated replica .

In the case of code phase tracking, the cost function is driven to the maximum using feedback loops that employ the derivative zero-crossing as a timing error detector. This is the case of the Delay Lock Loop (DLL) architecture and its wide range of variants, where the receiver computes three samples of , usually referred to as Early , Prompt and Late , with ranging from to , and then computes a timing error with some combination of those samples, known as discriminator functions. The result is low-pass filtered and reinjected back to the matched filter, as shown in the figure below:

VOLK_GNSSDR example Typical diagram of a tracking block. Colored boxes indicate functions implemented in the VOLK_GNSSSDR library.

GNSS-SDR’s Tracking implementations make heavy use of VOLK_GNSSSDR, an extension module of the original VOLK library which contains some functions that are specially useful in the context of a GNSS receiver (some examples in the figure above).

The VOLK_GNSSSDR library addresses Efficiency and Portability at the same time, by providing several implementations of the same functions in different SIMD technologies, benchmarking them and selecting the fastest in your machine at runtime.

The Tracking blocks are continually receiving the data stream , but they do nothing until receiving a “positive acquisition” message, along with the coarse estimations and , provided by an Acquisition block. Then, the role of the Tracking blocks is to refine such estimations and track their changes along time. As shown in the figure below, more refinements can be made once the navigation message bits (in the case of tracking a data component of a GNSS signal) or the secondary spreading code (in the case of tracking a pilot component of a GNSS signal) is synchronized, for instance by extending the integration time or by narrowing the tracking loops.

Tracking State Machine Internal state machine of a Tracking block.

In addition to track the synchronization parameters, the Tracking blocks must also implement code and carrier lock detectors, providing indicators of the tracking performance, as well as an estimation of the carrier-to-noise-density ratio, .

Carrier-to-noise-density ratio

The carrier-to-noise-density ratio, expressed as (where is the carrier power, is the noise power and is the bandwidth of observation) refers to the ratio of the carrier power and the noise power per unit of bandwidth, so it is expressed in decibel-Hertz (dB-Hz). The term is known as the signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR).

Considering that the observation bandwidth is the inverse of the coherent integration time, , we can write:

The SNR estimation can be computed as:

where:

  • is the estimation of the signal power,
  • is the estimation of the total power,
  • is the absolute value (also known as norm, modulus, or magnitude),
  • stands for the real part of the value, and
  • is the prompt correlator output for the integration period .

Then, the estimated value in dB-Hz can be written as:

The value provides an indication of the signal quality that is independent of the acquisition and tracking algorithms used by a receiver, and it remains constant through the different processing stages of the receiver.

The number of correlation outputs to perform the estimation defaults to (but except for ). This value can be changed by using the command line flag -cn0_samples when running the executable:

$ gnss-sdr -cn0_samples=100 -c=./configuration_file.conf

Code lock detector

The lock detector for the code tracking loop is defined as:

If the estimated is above a certain threshold, the tracking loop is declared locked.

The threshold is set by default to 25 dB-Hz. This value can be changed by using the command line flag -cn0_min when running the executable:

$ gnss-sdr -cn0_min=22 -c=./configuration_file.conf

Carrier lock detector

The lock detector test for the carrier tracking loop is defined as:

where is the carrier phase error. If the estimate of the cosine of twice the carrier phase error is above a certain threshold, the loop is declared in lock.

The estimate of the cosine of twice the carrier phase error is computed as:

where:

  • ,
  • ,
  • and stand for the real and imaginary parts of the value, respectively, and
  • is the prompt correlator output for the integration period .

The threshold is set by default to 0.85 radians (corresponding to an error of approx. 31 degrees). This value can be changed by using the command line flag -carrier_lock_th when running the executable:

$ gnss-sdr -carrier_lock_th=0.75 -c=./configuration_file.conf

Number of failures allowed before declaring a loss of lock

The maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite is set by default to 50 consecutive failures. This value can be changed by using the command line flag -max_lock_fail when running the executable:

$ gnss-sdr -max_lock_fail=100 -c=./configuration_file.conf

   

The configuration interfaces for the available block implementations are described below.

GPS L1 C/A signal tracking

This signal, centered at MHz, has a complex baseband transmitted signal that can be written as:

with

where is the exclusive–or operation (modulo–2 addition), means modulo , means the integer part of , is the GPS navigation message bit sequence, transmitted at bit/s, s, s, , and is the chip pulse of a chip–period duration.

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as:

The implementations described below perform the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
cn0_samples Number of correlator outputs used for CN0 estimation. It defaults to 20. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_min Minimum valid CN0 (in dB-Hz). It defaults to 25 dB-Hz. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
max_lock_fail Maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite. It defaults to 50. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
carrier_lock_th Carrier lock threshold (in rad). It defaults to 0.85 rad. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging, in form of “.dat” files. This format can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. This parameter accepts either a relative or an absolute path; if there are non-existing specified folders, they will be created. It defaults to ./track_ch, so files in the form “./track_chX.dat”, where X is the channel number, will be generated. Optional
dump_mat [true, false]. If dump=true, when the receiver exits it can convert the “.dat” files stored by this block into “.mat” files directly readable from Matlab and Octave. If the receiver has processed more than a few minutes of signal, this conversion can take a long time. In systems with limited resources, you can turn off this conversion by setting this parameter to false. It defaults to true, so “.mat” files are generated by default if dump=true. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional

Tracking implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1C.implementation=GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_1C.pll_bw_hz=30.0
Tracking_1C.dll_bw_hz=4.0
Tracking_1C.early_late_space_chips=0.5

Implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex, cshort]. Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 20 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
extend_correlation_ms Correlation length, in ms. It defaults to 1 ms. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. Binary data can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1C.implementation=GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking
Tracking_1C.item_type=cshort
Tracking_1C.pll_bw_hz=40.0;
Tracking_1C.dll_bw_hz=4.0;

Implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking_GPU

GPU-accelerated computing consists in the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) together with a CPU to accelerate the execution of a software application, by offloading computation-intensive portions of the application to the GPU, while the remainder of the code still runs on the CPU. The key idea is to utilize the computation power of both CPU cores and GPU execution units in tandem for better utilization of available computing power.

This implementation follows the CUDA programming model and targets NVIDIA’s GPU computing platform. Thus, you will need a CUDA-enabled GPU and the CUDA Toolkit installed. Moreover, it is only available if GNSS-SDR has been built from source and configured with the flag ENABLE_CUDA set to ON:

$ cmake -DENABLE_CUDA=ON ../ && make && sudo make install

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking_GPU Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking_GPU.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1C.implementation=GPS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking_GPU
Tracking_1C.pll_bw_hz=40.0;
Tracking_1C.dll_bw_hz=4.0;

Galileo E1 signal tracking

This band, centered at MHz and with a reference bandwidth of MHz, uses the Composite Binary Offset Carrier (CBOC) modulation, defined in baseband as:

where the subcarriers are defined as

and MHz, MHz are the subcarrier rates, , and . Channel B contains the I/NAV type of navigation message, , intended for Safety–of–Life (SoL) services:

In case of channel C, it is a pilot (dataless) channel with a secondary code, forming a tiered code:

with s and ms.

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as

The implementation described below performs the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: Galileo_E1_DLL_PLL_VEML_Tracking

In case of Galileo E1, the CBOC(6,1,) modulation creates correlation ambiguities, as shown in the following figure:

Rxd

Normalized for different sampling rates and local reference waveforms2.

The possibility of tracking a local maximum instead of the global one can be avoided by using discriminators that consider two extra samples of the cost function, referred to as Very Early and Very Late , with .

In the case of carrier tracking loops, the pilot channel E1C can be used for the phase error estimation, since it does not contain data bit transitions, and, theoretically, coherent integration of several code periods can be used for as long as needed once the secondary code has been removed. As a consequence, a discriminator that is insensitive to phase jumps can be used. Using pure PLL tracking on the pilot channel as well as longer coherent integration improves the carrier tracking sensitivity, the minimum signal power at which the receiver can keep the tracking process in lock.

The implementation of this block is described in Algorithm below. The computation of the complex values VE, E, P, L and VL in step was implemented using the VOLK_GNSSSDR library. The PLL discriminator implemented in step is the extended arctangent (four-quadrant) discriminator, and for the DLL we used the normalized Very Early Minus Late Power discriminator (step ). For code lock detection (step ), we used the Squared Signal-to-Noise Variance (SNV) estimator3. In the case of carrier lock detection (step ), we used the normalized estimate of the cosine of twice the carrier phase4. The values of the lock indicator range from , when the locally generated carrier is completely out of phase, to , that indicates a perfect match. When either the code or the carrier detectors are below given thresholds during a consecutive number of code periods , the Tracking block informs to control plane through the message queue.

  • Require: Complex sample stream, ; estimations of code phase and Doppler shift ; buffer size for power estimation, ; carrier lock detector threshold, ; ; maximum value for the lock fail counter, ; correlators spacing and ; loop filters bandwidth and ; integration time . Track signal’s synchronization parameters within a given lock margin. Inform about a loss of lock.
  1. Initialization: Using and a sample counter , skip samples until is aligned with local PRN replica. Set , , , , , .

  2. Increase the integration period counter: .

  3. Generate local code references: for , , where , and the Very Early, Early, Late, and Very Late versions with and .
  4. Generate local carrier: for , .

  5. Perform carrier wipe-off and compute the complex samples VE, E, P, L and VL. Example: .

  6. Compute PLL discriminator:

  7. Filter with a bandwidth : .

  8. Update carrier frequency estimation (in Hz): .

  9. Update carrier phase estimation (in rad): .

  10. Compute DLL discriminator: , where: , and .

  11. Filter with a bandwidth : .

  12. Update code phase estimation (in samples): and , where .

  13. Code lock indicator: , where: , , and .

  14. Phase lock indicator: .

  15. if or
    • Increase lock fail counter .
  16. else
    • Decrease lock fail counter .
  17. endif

  18. if
    • Notify the loss of lock to the control plane through the message queue.
  19. endif

  20. Output: , accumulated carrier phase error , code phase , carrier-to-noise-density ratio .

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation Galileo_E1_DLL_PLL_VEML_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
track_pilot [true, false]: If set to true, the receiver is set to track the pilot signal E1C and enables an extra prompt correlator (slave to pilot’s prompt) in the data component E1B. It defaults to false (that is, correlations on a data length of 4 ms over the E1B component). Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
extend_correlation_symbols If track_pilot=true, sets the number of correlation symbols to be extended after the secondary code is removed from the pilot signal, in number of symbols. Each symbol is 4 ms, so setting this parameter to 25 means a coherent integration time of 100 ms. The higher this parameter is, the better local clock stability will be required. It defaults to 1. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 5 Hz. This implementation uses a Costas loop. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 0.5 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
very_early_late_space_chips Spacing between Very Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Very Late correlators, normalized by the chip period It defaults to . Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after removal of the secondary code , in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. This implementation uses a four-quadrant arctangent discriminator (atan2). Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after removal of the secondary code and extension of the coherent integration time, in Hz. It defaults to 0.25 Hz. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
early_late_space_narrow_chips If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators after removal of the secondary code , normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
very_early_late_space_narrow_chips If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the spacing between Very Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Very Late correlators after removal of the secondary code and extension of the coherent integration time, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_samples Number of correlator outputs used for CN0 estimation. It defaults to 20. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_min Minimum valid CN0 (in dB-Hz). It defaults to 25 dB-Hz. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
max_lock_fail Maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite. It defaults to 50. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
carrier_lock_th Carrier lock threshold (in rad). It defaults to 0.85 rad. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging, in form of “.dat” files. This format can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. This parameter accepts either a relative or an absolute path; if there are non-existing specified folders, they will be created. It defaults to ./track_ch, so files in the form “./track_chX.dat”, where X is the channel number, will be generated. Optional
dump_mat [true, false]. If dump=true, when the receiver exits it can convert the “.dat” files stored by this block into “.mat” files directly readable from Matlab and Octave. If the receiver has processed more than a few minutes of signal, this conversion can take a long time. In systems with limited resources, you can turn off this conversion by setting this parameter to false. It defaults to true, so “.mat” files are generated by default if dump=true. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional

Tracking implementation: Galileo_E1_DLL_PLL_VEML_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1B.implementation=Galileo_E1_DLL_PLL_VEML_Tracking
Tracking_1B.pll_bw_hz=15.0;
Tracking_1B.dll_bw_hz=2.0;

Glonass L1 C/A signal tracking

The complex baseband transmitted signal can be written as:

with

where s, s, and . The navigation message is transmitted at bit/s.

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as

The implementations described below perform the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation, which is available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10, accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. Binary data can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1G.implementation=GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_1G.pll_bw_hz=30.0
Tracking_1G.dll_bw_hz=4.0
Tracking_1G.early_late_space_chips=0.5

Implementation: GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking

This implementation, which is available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10, accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex, cshort]. Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 20 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
extend_correlation_ms Correlation length, in ms. It defaults to 1 ms. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. Binary data can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_1G.implementation=GLONASS_L1_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking
Tracking_1G.item_type=cshort
Tracking_1G.pll_bw_hz=40.0;
Tracking_1G.dll_bw_hz=4.0;

GPS L2CM signal tracking

This signal, centered at MHz, has a complex baseband transmitted signal that can be written as:

with the In–phase and Quadrature components defined as:

and

where ms and is a rectangular pulse of half chip–period duration, thus time–multiplexing codes and . The civilian long code is chips long, repeating every s, while the civilian moderate code is chips long and it repeats every ms.

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as

The implementation described below performs the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: GPS_L2_M_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GPS_L2_M_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 0.75 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
cn0_samples Number of correlator outputs used for CN0 estimation. It defaults to 20. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_min Minimum valid CN0 (in dB-Hz). It defaults to 25 dB-Hz. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
max_lock_fail Maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite. It defaults to 50. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
carrier_lock_th Carrier lock threshold (in rad). It defaults to 0.85 rad. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging, in form of “.dat” files. This format can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. This parameter accepts either a relative or an absolute path; if there are non-existing specified folders, they will be created. It defaults to ./track_ch, so files in the form “./track_chX.dat”, where X is the channel number, will be generated. Optional
dump_mat [true, false]. If dump=true, when the receiver exits it can convert the “.dat” files stored by this block into “.mat” files directly readable from Matlab and Octave. If the receiver has processed more than a few minutes of signal, this conversion can take a long time. In systems with limited resources, you can turn off this conversion by setting this parameter to false. It defaults to true, so “.mat” files are generated by default if dump=true. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional

Tracking implementation: GPS_L2_M_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_2S.implementation=GPS_L2_M_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_2S.pll_bw_hz=40.0;
Tracking_2S.dll_bw_hz=4.0;
Tracking_2S.early_late_space_chips=0.4

Glonass L2 C/A signal tracking

Beginning with the second generation of satellites, called GLONASS–M and first launched in 2001, a second civil signal is available using the same C/A code than the one in the L1 band but centered at MHz.

Implementation: GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation, which is available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10, accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. Binary data can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_2G.implementation=GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_2G.pll_bw_hz=30.0
Tracking_2G.dll_bw_hz=4.0
Tracking_2G.early_late_space_chips=0.5

Implementation: GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking

This implementation, which is available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10, accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex, cshort]. Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter before bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 20 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after bit synchronization, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
extend_correlation_ms Correlation length, in ms. It defaults to 1 ms. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging. Binary data can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. It defaults to ./track_ch Optional

Tracking implementation: GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_2G.implementation=GLONASS_L2_CA_DLL_PLL_C_Aid_Tracking
Tracking_2G.item_type=cshort
Tracking_2G.pll_bw_hz=40.0;
Tracking_2G.dll_bw_hz=4.0;

GPS L5 signal tracking

The GPS L5 link is only available on Block IIF and subsequent satellite blocks. Centered at MHz, this signal can be written as:

with:

where ms and s. The L5I component contains a synchronization sequence , a –bit Neuman–Hoffman code that modulates each symbols of the GPS L5 civil navigation data , and the L5Q component has another synchronization sequence .

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as

The implementation described below performs the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: GPS_L5_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation, which is available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10, accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation GPS_L5_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
track_pilot [true, false]: If set to true, the receiver is set to track the pilot signal L5Q and enables an extra prompt correlator (slave to pilot’s prompt) in the data component L5I. It defaults to false (that is, correlations on a data length of 1 ms over the L5I component). Optional
extend_correlation_symbols If track_pilot=true, sets the number of correlation symbols to be extended after the secondary code is removed from the pilot signal, in number of symbols. Each symbol is 1 ms, so setting this parameter to 25 means a coherent integration time of 25 ms. The higher this parameter is, the better local clock stability will be required. It defaults to 1. Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 50 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 0.25 Hz. Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_narrow_chips If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators after removal of the secondary code , normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
cn0_samples Number of correlator outputs used for CN0 estimation. It defaults to 20. Optional
cn0_min Minimum valid CN0 (in dB-Hz). It defaults to 25 dB-Hz. Optional
max_lock_fail Maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite. It defaults to 50. Optional
carrier_lock_th Carrier lock threshold (in rad). It defaults to 0.85 rad. Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging, in form of “.dat” files. This format can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, this parameter sets the base name of the files in which internal data will be stored. This parameter accepts either a relative or an absolute path; if there are non-existing specified folders, they will be created. It defaults to ./track_ch, so files in the form “./track_chX.dat”, where X is the channel number, will be generated. Optional
dump_mat [true, false]. If dump=true, when the receiver exits it can convert the “.dat” files stored by this block into “.mat” files directly readable from Matlab and Octave. If the receiver has processed more than a few minutes of signal, this conversion can take a long time. In systems with limited resources, you can turn off this conversion by setting this parameter to false. It defaults to true, so “.mat” files are generated by default if dump=true. Optional

Tracking implementation: GPS_L5_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_L5.implementation=GPS_L5_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_L5.pll_bw_hz=30.0
Tracking_L5.dll_bw_hz=4.0
Tracking_L5.early_late_space_chips=0.5

Galileo E5a signal tracking

The AltBOC modulation in the Galileo E5 band allows the approximation to two sub-bands, referred to as E5a and E5b, QPSK-modulated and centered at MHz and MHz, respectively.

The baseband signal at E5a can then be approximated by:

where the signal components are defined as:

where ms and s.

Then, applying equation in , the digital signal at the input of the Tracking block can be written as

The implementation described below performs the estimation of , and , which are assumed piecewise constant (that is, constant within an integration time, but allowed to vary from one integration period to the next one).

Implementation: Galileo_E5a_DLL_PLL_Tracking

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Global Parameter Description Required
GNSS-SDR.internal_fs_sps Input sample rate to the processing channels, in samples per second. Mandatory
Parameter Description Required
implementation Galileo_E5a_DLL_PLL_Tracking Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex]: Set the sample data type expected at the block input. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional
track_pilot [true, false]: If set to true, the receiver is set to track the pilot signal E5aQ and enables an extra prompt correlator (slave to pilot’s prompt) in the data component E5aI. It defaults to false (that is, correlations on a data length of 1 ms over the E5aI component). Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
extend_correlation_symbols If track_pilot=true, sets the number of correlation symbols to be extended after the secondary code is removed from the pilot signal, in number of symbols. Each symbol is 1 ms, so setting this parameter to 25 means a coherent integration time of 25 ms. The higher this parameter is, the better local clock stability will be required. It defaults to 1. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
pll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter before the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 20 Hz. Optional
dll_bw_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter before the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 20 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_chips Spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators, normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Optional
dll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the DLL low pass filter after the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 5 Hz. Optional
pll_bw_narrow_hz Bandwidth of the PLL low pass filter after the secondary code lock, in Hz. It defaults to 2 Hz. Optional
early_late_space_narrow_chips If track_pilot=true and extend_correlation_symbols 1, sets the spacing between Early and Prompt and between Prompt and Late correlators after removal of the secondary code , normalized by the chip period . It defaults to . Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_samples Number of correlator outputs used for CN0 estimation. It defaults to 20. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
cn0_min Minimum valid CN0 (in dB-Hz). It defaults to 25 dB-Hz. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
max_lock_fail Maximum number of lock failures before dropping a satellite. It defaults to 50. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
carrier_lock_th Carrier lock threshold (in rad). It defaults to 0.85 rad. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional
dump [true, false]: If set to true, it enables the Tracking internal binary data file logging, in form of “.dat” files. This format can be retrieved and plotted in Matlab / Octave, see scripts under gnss-sdr/src/utils/matlab/. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, name of the file in which internal data will be stored. This parameter accepts either a relative or an absolute path; if there are non-existing specified folders, they will be created. It defaults to ./track_ch, so files in the form “./track_chX.dat”, where X is the channel number, will be generated. Optional
dump_mat [true, false]. If dump=true, when the receiver exits it can convert the “.dat” files stored by this block into “.mat” files directly readable from Matlab and Octave. If the receiver has processed more than a few minutes of signal, this conversion can take a long time. In systems with limited resources, you can turn off this conversion by setting this parameter to false. It defaults to true, so “.mat” files are generated by default if dump=true. Available starting from GNSS-SDR v0.0.10 Optional

Tracking implementation: Galileo_E5a_DLL_PLL_Tracking.

Example:

;######### TRACKING GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Tracking_5X.implementation=Galileo_E5a_DLL_PLL_Tracking
Tracking_5X.item_type=gr_complex
Tracking_5X.pll_bw_hz=25.0
Tracking_5X.dll_bw_hz=4.0
Tracking_5X.pll_bw_narrow_hz=10.0
Tracking_5X.dll_bw_narrow_hz=4.0
Tracking_5X.early_late_space_chips=0.5

References

  1. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2008. 

  2. C. Fernández-Prades, J. Arribas, L. Esteve-Elfau, D. Pubill, P. Closas, An Open Source Galileo E1 Software Receiver, in Proceedings of the 6th ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation Technologies (NAVITEC 2012), 5-7 December 2012, ESTEC, Noordwijk (The Netherlands). 

  3. M. Petovello, E. Falletti, M. Pini, L. Lo Presti, Are Carrier-to-Noise algorithms equivalent in all situations?. Inside GNSS, Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 20-27, Jan.-Feb. 2010. 

  4. A. J. Van Dierendonck, “GPS Receivers”, from Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Volume I, Edited by B. W. Parkinson and J. J. Spilker Jr. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1996. 

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