Input Filter

The Input Filter is the second processing block inside a Signal Conditioner when the later is using a Signal_Conditioner implementation.

The role on an Input Filter block is to filter the incoming signal.

Implementation: Fir_Filter

This implementation, based on the Parks-McClellan algorithm, computes the optimal (in the Chebyshev/minimax sense) FIR filter impulse response given a set of band edges, the desired response on those bands, and the weight given to the error in those bands. The Parks-McClellan algorithm uses the Remez exchange algorithm and Chebyshev approximation theory to design filters with an optimal fit between the desired and actual frequency responses.

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Parameter Description Required
implementation Fir_Filter Mandatory
input_item_type [cbyte, cshort, gr_complex]: Input data type. This implementation only accepts streams of complex data types. Mandatory
output_item_type [cbyte, cshort, gr_complex]: Output data type. You can use this implementation to upcast the data type (i.e., from cbyte to gr_complex and from cshort to gr_complex). Mandatory
taps_item_type [float]: Type and resolution for the taps of the filter. Only float is allowed in the current version. Mandatory
number_of_taps Number of taps in the filter. Increasing this parameter increases the processing time. Mandatory
number_of_bands Number of frequency bands in the filter. Mandatory
band1_begin Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3…]. Frequency is in the range [0, 1], with 1 being the Nyquist frequency (). The number of band_begin and band_end elements must match the number of bands. Mandatory
band1_end Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
band2_begin Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
band2_end Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
ampl1_begin Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. The number of ampl_begin and ampl_end elements must match the number of bands. Mandatory
ampl1_end Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
ampl2_begin Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
ampl2_end Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
band1_error Weighting applied to band 1 (usually 1). Mandatory
band2_error Weighting applied to band 2 (usually 1). Mandatory
filter_type [bandpass, hilbert, differentiator]: type of filter to be used. Mandatory
grid_density Determines how accurately the filter will be constructed. The minimum value is 16; higher values makes the filter slower to compute, but often results in filters that more exactly match an equiripple filter. Mandatory
dump [false, true]: Flag for storing the signal at the filter output in a file. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, path to the file where data will be stored. Optional

Input Filter implementation: Fir_Filter.

Possible filter_type are:

  • passband: designs a FIR filter, using the weights band1_error, band2_error, etc. to weight the fit in each frequency band.

  • hilbert: designs linear-phase filters with odd symmetry. This class of filters has a desired amplitude of 1 across the entire band.

  • differentiator: For nonzero amplitude bands, it weights the error by a factor of so that the error at low frequencies is much smaller than at high frequencies. For FIR differentiators, which have an amplitude characteristic proportional to frequency, these filters minimize the maximum relative error (the maximum of the ratio of the error to the desired amplitude).

The following figure shows the relationship between = [band1_begin band1_end band2_begin band2_end] and = [ampl1_begin ampl1_end ampl2_begin ampl2_end] vectors in defining a desired frequency response for the Input Filter:

Filter

If you have access to MATLAB, you can plot easily the frequency response of the filter. Just copy these lines into the command window:

f = [0 0.45 0.55 1];
a = [1 1 0 0];
b = firpm(5, f, a);
[h, w] = freqz(b, 1, 512);
plot(f, a, w/pi, abs(h))
legend('Ideal', 'Filter design')
xlabel('Radian Frequency (\omega/\pi)'), ylabel('Magnitude')

Example of GNSS-SDR configuration:

;######### INPUT_FILTER CONFIG ############
InputFilter.implementation=Fir_Filter

InputFilter.dump=false
InputFilter.dump_filename=../data/input_filter.dat

InputFilter.input_item_type=cbyte
InputFilter.output_item_type=gr_complex
InputFilter.taps_item_type=float
InputFilter.number_of_taps=5

InputFilter.number_of_bands=2

InputFilter.band1_begin=0.0
InputFilter.band1_end=0.45
InputFilter.band2_begin=0.55
InputFilter.band2_end=1.0

InputFilter.ampl1_begin=1.0
InputFilter.ampl1_end=1.0
InputFilter.ampl2_begin=0.0
InputFilter.ampl2_end=0.0

InputFilter.band1_error=1.0
InputFilter.band2_error=1.0

InputFilter.filter_type=bandpass
InputFilter.grid_density=16

Implementation: Freq_Xlating_Fir_Filter

This implementation features a frequency-translating FIR filter. This is often used when input data is art an intermediate frequency, as it performs frequency translation, filtering and decimation in one step. The basic principle of this block is to perform:

Input signal BPF decim (mult by · decim) Output signal.

The BPF is the baseband filter (LPF) moved up to the center frequency . The block then applies a derotator with to downshift the signal to baseband.

This implementation accepts the following parameters:

Parameter Description Required
implementation Freq_Xlating_Fir_Filter Mandatory
input_item_type [byte, short, float, gr_complex]: This implementation accepts as input data type real samples. It also accepts complex samples of the type gr_complex, assuming the presence of an intermediate frequency. The filter also works with IF=0. Mandatory
output_item_type [cbyte, cshort, gr_complex]: Output data type. You can use this implementation to upcast the data type. Mandatory
sampling_frequency Specifies the sample rate , in samples per second. Mandatory
IF Specifies the intermediate frequency , in Hz. It defaults to . Optional
decimation_factor Decimation factor (defaults to 1). Needs to be an integer. Optional
taps_item_type [float]: Type and resolution for the taps of the filter. Only float is allowed in the current version. Mandatory
number_of_taps Number of taps in the filter. Increasing this parameter increases the processing time. Mandatory
number_of_bands Number of frequency bands in the filter. Mandatory
band1_begin Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3…]. Frequency is in the range [0, 1], with 1 being the Nyquist frequency (). The number of band_begin and band_end elements must match the number of bands. Mandatory
band1_end Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
band2_begin Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
band2_end Frequency at the band edges [ b1 e1 b2 e2 b3 e3 …] Mandatory
ampl1_begin Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. The number of ampl_begin and ampl_end elements must match the number of bands. Mandatory
ampl1_end Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
ampl2_begin Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
ampl2_end Desired amplitude at the band edges [ a(b1) a(e1) a(b2) a(e2) …]. Mandatory
band1_error Weighting applied to band 1 (usually 1). Mandatory
band2_error Weighting applied to band 2 (usually 1). Mandatory
filter_type [bandpass, hilbert, differentiator]: type of filter to be used. Mandatory
grid_density Determines how accurately the filter will be constructed. The minimum value is 16; higher values makes the filter slower to compute, but often results in filters that more exactly match an equiripple filter. Mandatory
dump [false, true]: Flag for storing the signal at the filter output in a file. It defaults to false. Optional
dump_filename If dump is set to true, path to the file where data will be stored. Optional

Input Filter implementation: Freq_Xlating_Fir_Filter.

Example:

;######### INPUT_FILTER CONFIG ############
InputFilter.implementation=Freq_Xlating_Fir_Filter

InputFilter.dump=false
InputFilter.dump_filename=../data/input_filter.dat

InputFilter.input_item_type=byte
InputFilter.output_item_type=gr_complex
InputFilter.taps_item_type=float

InputFilter.number_of_taps=5
InputFilter.number_of_bands=2

InputFilter.band1_begin=0.0
InputFilter.band1_end=0.45
InputFilter.band2_begin=0.55
InputFilter.band2_end=1.0

InputFilter.ampl1_begin=1.0
InputFilter.ampl1_end=1.0
InputFilter.ampl2_begin=0.0
InputFilter.ampl2_end=0.0

InputFilter.band1_error=1.0
InputFilter.band2_error=1.0
InputFilter.filter_type=bandpass
InputFilter.grid_density=16

InputFilter.IF=2000000
InputFilter.sampling_frequency=8000000

Implementation: Pass_Through

This implementation copies samples from its input to its output, without performing any filtering or data type conversion.

It accepts the following parameters:

Parameter Description Required
implementation Pass_Through Mandatory
item_type [gr_complex, cshort, cbyte]: Format of data samples. It defaults to gr_complex. Optional

Input Filter implementation: Pass_Through.

Examples:

;######### INPUT FILTER CONFIG ############
InputFilter.implementation=Pass_Through
;######### INPUT FILTER CONFIG ############
InputFilter.implementation=Pass_Through
InputFilter.item_type=cshort

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