Channels

Each Channel encapsulates blocks for signal acquisition, tracking and demodulation of the navigation message for a single satellite. These abstract interfaces can be populated with different algorithms addressing any suitable GNSS signal. The user can define the number of parallel channels to be instantiated by the software receiver, and the thread-per-block scheduler imposed by GNU Radio automatically manages the multitasking capabilities of modern multi-core processors. This is done through the configuration file with the Channels_XX.count parameter, where XX is one of the following signal identifiers:

Identifier Signal Center Frequency
1C GPS L1 C/A MHz
1B Galileo E1 B MHz
2S GPS L2 L2CM MHz
5X Galileo E5a (I+Q) MHz

Then, four parameters can be set: Channels_1C.count, Channels_2S.count, Channels_1B.count and Channels_5X.count, all of them defaulting to .

In addition, the GNSS-SDR flow graph allows to set the number of channels that will be executing signal acquisition (which is known to require a high computational load) concurrently. This is controlled by the parameter Channels.in_acquisition, which defaults to the total number of channels (all of them performing acquisition on different satellite signals at the same time, if required). When working with real-time configurations, it is a good practice to set this parameter to 1 (that is, only one channel performing acquisition at a given time) in order to alleviate the computational burden.

Channels accepts the following parameters:

Parameter Description Required
Channels_1C.count Number of channels targeting GPS L1 C/A signals. It defaults to . Optional
Channels_2S.count Number of channels targeting GPS L2 L2CM signals. It defaults to . Optional
Channels_1B.count Number of channels targeting Galileo E1 B signals. It defaults to . Optional
Channels_5X.count Number of channels targeting Galileo E5a (I+Q) signals. It defaults to . Optional
Channel.signal Assign all channels to a specific signal [1C, 1B, 2S, 5X]. Only required in single-system receivers. Optional
ChannelN.signal (where N is the channel number, starting from ). Assign each channel to a specific signal [1C, 1B, 2S, 5X]. Not required in single-system receivers. Optional
ChannelN.RF_channel_ID (where N is the channel number, starting from ). Connects channel N to a radio frequency chain. It defaults to . Not required in single-band receivers. Optional
ChannelN.Signal_Source_ID (where N is the channel number, starting from ). Connects channel N to a signal source. It defaults to . Not required in single-source receivers. Optional
Channels.in_acquisition Maximum number of channels performing signal acquisition at the same time. The recommended value is . It defaults to the total number of channels. Optional

Then, each type of defined channel requires the configuration of:

  • Acquisition blocks targeting the desired signal type, in charge of the detection of signals coming from a given GNSS satellite and, in the case of a positive detection, to provide coarse estimations of the code phase and the Doppler shift ,
  • Tracking blocks targeting the desired signal type, in charge of following the evolution of the signal synchronization parameters: code phase , Doppler shift and carrier phase , and
  • Telemetry Decoder blocks targeting the desired signal type, in charge of demodulating and decoding the GNSS navigation message carried by that particular signal.

Examples for different receiver architectures are provided below.

Single system, single band receiver

Setting a single-band receiver with twelve channels devoted to GPS L1 C/A signal can be done as:

;######### CHANNELS GLOBAL CONFIG ############
Channels_1C.count=12
Channel.signal=1C
Channels.in_acquisition=1

Acquisition_1C.implementation=...
; or Acquisition_1C0, ..., Acquisition_1C11, and parameters.

Tracking_1C.implementation=...
; or Tracking_1C0, ..., Tracking_1C11, and parameters.

TelemetryDecoder_1C.implementation=...
; or TelemetryDecoder_1C0, ..., TelemetryDecoder_1C11, and parameters.

Multi-constellation, single band receiver

When defining a multi-system receiver, the user must specify which channels are devoted to each signal. This is done through the parameter ChannelN.signal, where N is the absolute channel number, starting from zero:

;######### CHANNELS CONFIG ############
Channels_1C.count=4
Channels_1B.count=4
Channels.in_acquisition=1
Channel0.signal=1C
Channel1.signal=1C
Channel2.signal=1C
Channel3.signal=1C
Channel4.signal=1B
Channel5.signal=1B
Channel6.signal=1B
Channel7.signal=1B

Acquisition_1C.implementation=...
; or Acquisition_1C0, ..., Acquisition_1C3, and parameters.
Acquisition_1B.implementation=...
; or Acquisition_1B4, ..., Acquisition_1B7, and parameters.

Tracking_1C.implementation=...
; or Tracking_1C0, ..., Tracking_1C3
Tracking_1B.implementation=...
; or Tracking_1B4, ..., Tracking_1B7

TelemetryDecoder_1C.implementation=...
; or TelemetryDecoder_1C0, ..., TelemetryDecoder_1C3, and parameters.
TelemetryDecoder_1B.implementation=...
; or TelemetryDecoder_1B4, ..., TelemetryDecoder_1B7, and parameters.

Multi-band receiver

When defining a multi-band receiver, in addition to assign a signal to each channel, users need to specify the connection of the different radio-frequency chains to the processing channels. This is done using the ChannelN.RF_channel_ID, where N is the absolute channel number, starting from zero:

; # Channel connection
Channel0.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel1.RF_channel_ID=1

Thus, a dual-band GPS receiver, connecting eight GPS L1 C/A channels to the radio frequency chain and eight GPS L2CM channels to the radio frequency chain would be configured as:

;######### CHANNELS CONFIG ############
Channels_1C.count=8
Channels_1B.count=8
Channels.in_acquisition=1
Channel0.signal=1C
Channel1.signal=1C
Channel2.signal=1C
Channel3.signal=1C
Channel4.signal=1C
Channel5.signal=1C
Channel6.signal=1C
Channel7.signal=1C
Channel8.signal=2S
Channel9.signal=2S
Channel10.signal=2S
Channel11.signal=2S
Channel12.signal=2S
Channel13.signal=2S
Channel14.signal=2S
Channel15.signal=2S
Channel0.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel1.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel2.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel3.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel4.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel5.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel6.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel7.RF_channel_ID=0
Channel8.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel9.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel10.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel11.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel12.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel13.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel14.RF_channel_ID=1
Channel15.RF_channel_ID=1

Acquisition_1C.implementation=...
; or Acquisition_1C0, ..., Acquisition_1C7
Acquisition_2S.implementation=...
; or Acquisition_2S8, ..., Acquisition_2S15

Tracking_1C.implementation=...
; or Tracking_1C0, ..., Tracking_1C7
Tracking_2S.implementation=...
; or Tracking_2S8, ..., Tracking_2S15

TelemetryDecoder_1C.implementation=...
; or TelemetryDecoder_1C0, ..., TelemetryDecoder_1C7
TelemetryDecoder_2S.implementation=...
; or TelemetryDecoder_2S8, ..., TelemetryDecoder_2S15

Multi-source receiver

When defining a multi-source receiver, in addition to assign a signal to each channel, users need to specify the connection of the different signal sources to the processing channels. This is done using the ChannelN.SignalSource_ID, where N is the absolute channel number, starting from zero:

; # Channel connection
Channel0.SignalSource_ID=0
Channel1.SignalSource_ID=0
Channel2.SignalSource_ID=1
Channel3.SignalSource_ID=1

Updated:

Leave a Comment